Kırgızistan‘ın başkenti Bişkek’e 25 kilometre mesafede Tanrı Dağı eteklerindeki Taş Döbö köyü yakınlarında yer alan Ata-Beyit Ulusal Tarih ve Anıt Kompleksi, ülkenin ilk Cumhurbaşkanı Askar Akayev’in girişimiyle, Stalin’in emriyle kurşuna dizilen aydınların anısına 2000’de inşa edildi.
Kompleksteki küçük müzede, kurşuna dizilenlerin gömüldüğü toplu mezardan çıkan madeni para, ayakkabılar, belgeler, gazete kupürleri, fotoğraflar, kimlikler ve ölenlere ait özgeçmişler sergileniyor. Kırgızların 1916’da Rus Çarlığına karşı isyanını simgeleyen “Ürkün” adı verilen ve 5 yıl önce dikilen anıt da komplekste yer alıyor.
Almanya’da tedavi gördüğü hastanede 2008’de vefat eden dünyaca ünlü roman yazarı, diplomat ve devlet adamı Cengiz Aytmatov ve halk ayaklanmasının yaşandığı 7 Nisan 2010’da yaşamını yitirenlerin kabirleri de Ata-Beyit’te bulunuyor.
İlk Kırgız aydınlarının neredeyse tamamının gömülü olduğu Ata-Beyit, yerli ve yabancı turistlerin yanı sıra ülkeye gelen yabancı devlet adamlarının ilk ziyaret ettiği mekanların başında geliyor.
Stalin’in ölümünün ardından hakları iade edildi
Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyetler Birliği’nin (SSCB) kuruluşunun ardından 1924’te iktidara gelen Stalin, uyguladığı totaliter rejim nedeniyle her milletten milyonlarca insanı sürgüne mahkum etti.
Kırgız Latin alfabesinin mimarı Kasım Tınıstanov, ilk Kırgızca alfabeyi hazırlayan İşenali Arabayev, Kırgız devletinin temel taşını koyan devlet adamlarından Yusup Abdrahmanov, Bayalı İsakeyev, İmanalı Aydarbekov ve birçok vatansever, dönemin rejiminden nasibini aldı.
Cengiz Aytmatov’un babası, dönemin Sanayi ve Ticaret Bakanı Toleykul Aytmatov’un 1938 yılında gizlice kurşuna dizilerek Bişkek şehrinin yakınlarındaki Çon-Taş köyünde toplu mezara gömüldüğü de 53 yıl sonra anlaşıldı.
Gömülme hadisesine tesadüfen tanıklık eden bekçi Abıkan Kıdıralıyev’in kızı Bübüyra Kıdıraliyeva’nın, babasının vasiyetini 18 yıl aradan sonra istihbarat çalışanı Bolot Abdrahmanov’la paylaşmasıyla infaz edilen kişilerin ceset kalıntılarına ulaşıldı.
Abdrahmanov’un yönetiminde, Çon-Taş köyünde bir tuğla fırınında yapılan kazı sonucu ulaşılan ceset kalıntıları, kimlik tespiti için adli tıp morguna götürüldü.
Yapılan arşiv araştırmaları ve DNA testleri sonucunda biri kadın 138 kişinin cesedinin dönemin aydınları ve kayıp kişilere ait olduğu bulgusuna varıldı.
Komisyonun ulaştığı cesetlerden üçünün üzerinde infaz belgesinin çıktığı, birisinin yazar Aytmatov’un babasına ait olduğu anlaşıldı.
Ceset kalıntılarına ulaşılan kişilerin elleri arkadan bağlanarak arkadan kafatasına iki kurşun sıkılarak öldürüldüğü tespit edildi.
Cenazeler için, 31 Ağustos 1991’de Kırgızistan’ın bağımsızlığının ilan edildiği günün arifesinde 30 Ağustos 1991 yılında resmi cenaze töreni düzenlendi.
Binlerce kişi ve siyasi erkanın katılımıyla söz konusu aydınların defnedildiği mekana, yazar Aytmatov’un teklifi üzerine Ata-Beyit (Babaların Mezarı) Ulusal Tarih ve Anıt Kompleksi adı verildi.
40’ı devlet adamı, geriye kalanları dil bilimci, eğitim, ekonomi ve sağlık alanında önemli projeleri hayata geçiren isimlerin oluşturduğu infaz edilen Kırgız aydınların hepsine Stalin’in ölümünün ardından hakları iade edildi.
Stalin’in iktidarı döneminde Kırgızistan topraklarında 20 binden fazla kişinin sürgün veya yargısız infaza maruz kaldığı düşünülüyor.
“Ata-Beyit Ulusal Tarih ve Anıt Kompleksi manevi merkeze dönüştü”
Ata-Beyit Ulusal Tarih ve Anıt Kompleksi Müdürü Gulnara Tursunbekova, AA muhabirine komplekse ilişkin bilgi verdi.
Tursunbekova, kompleksin Stalin döneminde öldürülen 138 aydının yanı sıra dünyaca ünlü yazar Cengiz Aytmatov ve “7 Nisan Şehitleri”nin kabirlerinin bulunmasıyla önem taşıdığını anlattı.
Kırgızların 1916’da Rus Çarlığına karşı isyanını simgeleyen “Ürkün” adı verilen anıtın de yer aldığını anımsatan Tursunbekova, “Öğrenciler, yerli ve yabancı turistler ve resmi heyetlerin uğrak yerine dönüşmesi sayesinde Ata-Beyit Ulusal Tarih ve Anıt Kompleksi manevi merkeze dönüştü.” diye konuştu.
Tursunbekova, görevli rehberlerin, Kırgız devletinin kurulmasında öncülük eden Ata-Beyit’teki 138 aydının emeklerini gelecek kuşaklara aktarma gayreti içinde olduklarını sözlerine ekledi.
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