İspanyol hükümeti Katalonya’nın bağımsızlık talebi için masaya oturdu
Katalonya’da bağımsızlık yanlısı iki siyasi partinin koalisyonundan oluşan özerk yönetim hükümetinin talebiyle “diyalog masası” adıyla başlayan müzakerelerin ilkine merkezi hükümetten Başbakan Pedro Sanchez ve 4 bakan katılırken, Katalonya tarafında ise koalisyonun ortaklarından sadece biri masada yer aldı.
Katalonya yerel hükümetinde, koalisyonun büyük ortağı Katalonya Cumhuriyetçi Solu (ERC), Katalonya Özerk Hükümet Başkanı Pere Aragones ve 2 bakan toplantıda hazır bulunurken, koalisyonun küçük ortağı Katalonya İçin Birlik Partisi (Junts) masaya oturmadı. Junts’un toplantıya katılmama gerekçesi, 22 Haziran’da getirilen af ile serbest kalan tutuklu Katalan siyasetçilerden 2’sinin görüşmelere katılmasıyla ilgili talebinin kabul edilmemesi oldu.
Barselona’da yapılan toplantı öncesinde Başbakan Sanchez, Katalonya Özerk Hükümet Başkanı Aragones ile 2 saatlik görüşme yaptı.
“Yakınlaşmak, için diyalog en iyi yol”
Diyalog masasının ilk görüşmesinden sonra ortak basın toplantısında konuşan Sanchez, “Katalonya sorununun çözümüne ilişkin bizim ve Katalonya’daki yerel hükümetin görüşleri arasında radikal farklılık var. Bunun altını çizmek istiyorum. Diğer yandan, yakınlaşmak için diyaloğun en iyi yol olduğuna ikna olmuş durumdayız. Katalonya sorunu, dün başlayıp yarın çözülecek bir sorun değil. Bu yüzden görüşmeler aceleye getirmeden, ara verilmeden ve bitiş tarihi konulmadan devam edecek.” dedi.
Katalonya’daki sosyal ve siyasi havanın 1 yıl öncesine oranla çok daha iyi olduğunu vurgulayan Sanchez, “İki taraf da diyalog ve anlaşmaya dayalı bir çözüm bulma arzusunda. Katalonya’nın, kayıp 10 yılını geri kazanmasını istiyoruz. Katalonya ve İspanya daha iyi bir geleceğe layık.” şeklinde konuştu.
Sanchez, Katalonya’nın bağımsızlık talebiyle ilgili mevcut büyük görüş farklılıklarına rağmen Kovid-19 salgınının aşılması, adil bir ekonomik kalkınma ve Avrupa fonlarının en iyi şekilde kullanılması konularında benzer fikirleri olduklarını söyledi.
Katalonya Özerk Hükümeti’nin, “diyalog masasından Katalonya’da bağımsızlık referandumu yapılması kararının çıkması ve bağımsızlık girişimleriyle bağlantılı yargı süreci olan herkese genel af getirilmesi” taleplerine “Ne referandum ne de genel af olası” diyerek en baştan karşı çıktıklarını aktaran Sanchez, şöyle devam etti:
“Katalan toplumu büyük gözyaşlarına dayanamaz. Siyasi olarak uzak pozisyonlarda olsak da bu krizi çözmek için bir anlaşmaya varmaya çalışacağız. Önemli olan; masaya oturmak, iki başkanın toplantı yapması ve 2017’de olanları çözmek için açık bir arzu olması. Benim burada bulunmam, Katalonya’daki duruma İspanyol toplumunun tamamının saygı ve sevgiyle bakmasının bir göstergesi.”
Katalonya Başkanı Aragones de merkezi hükümet ile çok farklı pozisyonda olmalarına rağmen henüz müzakerelerin başlangıcında olduklarını ve karşılıklı güven inşa etmeye çalıştıklarını ifade etti.
“Zamana ve sabırlı olmaya ihtiyacımız var. Katalonya vatandaşlarının onay verdiği, siyasi bir çözüm gerektiren siyasi bir krizle karşı karşıyayız. Savunduğumuz referandum, Katalonya’nın bağımsızlığı.” diyen Aragones, “Katalonya’nın referandumla belirlenmesi gereken bağımsızlığı ve uluslararası toplum tarafından tanınması, meşru ve rasyonel bir süreç olmalıdır. Demokrasi, siyasi anlaşmazlıkları çözmenin en meşru yöntemidir. Katalonya’da hiç kimse tamamen demokratik olmayan bir çözüm hayal etmiyor.” değerlendirmesinde bulundu.
Aragones, “bazen ileri bazen de geri adımların atılacağı, zor ve karışık bir süreci içerecek” müzakerelerde, önceliklerinin “genel af ve kendi geleceğine karar verme hakkı (referandum)” olacağını vurguladı.
Katalonya’da bağımsızlık yanlısı siyasi girişimler, 2012’de başlamış ve dönemin Katalonya Özerk Hükümet Başkanı Artur Mas’ın öncülüğünde 9 Kasım 2014’te yasa dışı ilk bağımsızlık yanlısı halk oylaması yapılmıştı.
Ardından 12 Ocak 2016-28 Ekim 2017’de Katalonya Özerk Hükümet Başkanı olarak görev yapan, halihazırda Avrupa parlamenteri olan ve İspanya’da hakkında yakalama ve tutuklama emri bulunan Carles Puigdemont’un liderliğinde 1 Ekim 2017’de, Anayasa Mahkemesinin iptal kararına rağmen yasa dışı bağımsızlık referandumu gerçekleşmişti.
Katalonya özerk yönetim parlamentosu da 27 Ekim 2017’de “açıklanması ertelenen, tek taraflı bağımsızlık deklarasyonunu” kabul etmiş ve aynı gün İspanya Senatosunda alınan ve Anayasa’nın 155. maddesinin uygulandığı kararla, Katalonya’nın özerk hakları geçici olarak merkezi hükümete devredilmişti.
Bu gelişmelerin ardından İspanya mahkemelerinden kaçan Puigdemont ve 6 eski Katalan siyasetçi ülkeyi terk ederken, diğer eski Katalan özerk yönetim hükümeti üyeleri ve iki sivil toplum örgütü temsilcisi, 2 Kasım 2017’de tedbiri kararla tutuklanarak cezaevine gönderilmişti.
Yüksek Mahkemede tutuklu yargılanan eski Katalonya özerk yönetim hükümeti üyeleri ve sivil toplum örgütü temsilcilerinden 9’u, devlete karşı ayaklanma, kamu parasını kötüye kullanma ve devletin kurumlarına itaatsizlik suçlarından Ekim 2019’da açıklanan kararla 9 ila 13 yıl hapis cezası almıştı.
İspanya’da Ocak 2020’den itibaren iktidarda olan sol koalisyon hükümeti de, Katalonya sorununa çözüm amacıyla tutuklu 9 Katalan siyasetçi hakkında 22 Haziran 2021’de kısmi af çıkarmıştı.
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