Çölü olmayan tek Arap ülkesi olarak bilinen Lübnan, Beka bölgesinden başlayıp Suriye sınırlarını aşarak Hatay’dan denize dökülen Asi Nehri başta olmak üzere zengin su kaynaklarına sahip.
Ülkenin en önemli nehirlerinden Litani, Beka Vadisi’nden güneye 170 kilometre uzandıktan sonra Akdeniz’e dökülüyor.
Lübnan için doğal bir yaşam kaynağı olan Litani, yıllardır nehir yatağına yakın yerleşim yerlerinden ve fabrikalardan gelen atık sular sorununa yönelik hiçbir adım atılmaması nedeniyle hastalıkların kaynağı haline geldi.
Halihazırda elektrik krizinin yaşandığı Lübnan için hem üzerinde enerji projelerinin gerçekleştirilebileceği hem de sulamada 100’den fazla köy ve beldenin yararlanabileceği Litani Nehri, ihmalin kurbanı olmuş durumda.
Ülkenin ekonomik açıdan ciddi bir kaybı olan Litani Nehri’ndeki durum, ayrıca çevreyi ve yatağına yakın yerleşim yerlerinde yaşayan on binlerce insanın sağlığını tehdit ediyor. Litani Nehri yatağına yakın köy ve kasabaların yaklaşık 100 bin Lübnanlının yanı sıra iç savaştan kaçarak Lübnan’a sığınan yaklaşık 70 bin Suriyeli mülteciye de ev sahipliği yaptığı tahmin ediliyor.
Nehirdeki kirlilik ve halkın sağlığına etkileri
Lübnan Enerji ve Su Kaynakları Bakanlığına bağlı Litani Nehri Ulusal Biriminin kısa süre önce yayımladığı rapora göre, Beka Vadisi’nde 1000 hektardan fazla tarım arazisi doğrudan Litani Nehri ve kirli akan kollarıyla sulanıyor.
Nehrin sulama için elverişli olmadığı yönünde pek çok kez uyarıda bulunan Litani Nehri Ulusal Birimi, “nehir suyunu tarım için kullanmanın gıda güvenliğini ve halkın sağlığını tehdit edebileceğini” bildirdi.
Litani Nehri yatağına yakın köy ve beldelerdeki kanser oranlarının ülkenin diğer bölgelerine kıyasla daha yüksek olduğuna dikkati çekilen raporda, “Kanalizasyon ve atık su haline dönüşen Litani Nehri, hastalık ve salgınların taşıyıcısı olduğu gibi yeraltı sularının da kirlenmesine yol açıyor.” ifadeleri kullanıldı.
Litani Nehri Ulusal Biriminin önceki yıllarda yayımladığı raporlarda da Beka vilayetinin Zahle ilçesine bağlı 16 bin nüfusa sahip Ber İlyas Beldesi’nde kansere yakalananların sayısının 600’ü aştığı, 1700 nüfuslu Havş er-Rafika Beldesi’nde de şu ana kadar 60 kanser vakasına rastlandığı kaydedilmişti.
“Uzun yıllardır devam eden kötü yönetimler sonucu bu zenginlikler heba edildi”
Litani Nehri Ulusal Birimi Müdürü Sami Ulviye, AA muhabirine yaptığı açıklamada, nehrin kirli atıklardan temizlenememesinin nedeni olarak, ülkenin bağımsızlığına kavuştuğu 1943 yılından beri su kaynaklarındaki kötü yönetime dikkati çekti.
Hızla genişleyen imara rağmen kanalizasyon şebekelerine dair planlamanın olmadığını aktaran Ulviye, denetim yapılmadığı için bölgede tarım arazilerinin hiçbir çevre önlemine riayet edilmeden sanayi bölgelerine dönüştürüldüğünü savundu.
Lübnan’daki birçok etkenden ötürü atık suların Litani Nehri başta olmak üzere nehir yatakları ile deniz kıyılarına aktığını söyleyen Ulviye, sözlerini şöyle sürdürdü:
“Bu sorun, Lübnan devletine su kaynaklarını kaybettirdi. Daha önce ise tarih boyunca Lübnan’ın sahip olduğu zengin su kaynakları şarkılara konu oluyordu. Maalesef uzun yıllardır peş peşe devam eden kötü yönetimler ve atık su tesislerinin kurulamaması sonucu bu zenginlikler heba edildi.”
“Bölge sakinlerinin sağlığını tehdit ediyor”
Litani Nehri yakınlarındaki Havş er-Rafika Beldesi sakinlerinden Ebu İmad, “Yıllardır kanalizasyon suları Litani Nehri’ne karışıyor. Bu da bölge sakinlerinin sağlığını tehdit ediyor.” dedi.
Nehirden sulanan tarım arazilerinden elde edilen ürünlerin de sağlıklı olmadığına işaret eden Ebu İmad, “Bu durum, Litani Nehri’nin yatağına yakın tüm yerleşim yerleri için geçerli.” diye konuştu.
Nehir yatağına yakın yerleşim yerlerinden Er-Ravda Beldesi Belediye Başkanı Macid Yunus da nehirdeki durumun hem bölge sakinleri hem de çevre için bir felaket oluşturduğu uyarısında bulundu.
Yunus, “Tarım ürünleri sağlıksız, Litani Nehri’nin oluşturduğu göletteki balıklar da aynı şekilde sağlıklı değil. Yetkililer sürekli atık suların nehre akmasının önleneceği yönünde konuşuyor ancak hiçbir adım atılamıyor.” dedi.
Lübnan makamları Nisan 2021’de Litani Nehri yatağındaki Karun Baraj göletinde telef olan 120 ton balığı toplamıştı. Çevre uzmanları da söz konusu balıkların, Litani Nehri’ne akmaya devam eden atık sular nedeniyle telef olduğuna dikkati çekmişti.
Lübnan Tarım Bakanlığı, atık suların aktığı Karun Barajı göletinde balık avlamayı 2018 yılından beri yasaklamış durumda.
“Yolsuzluklarla yönetimde kalanlar, uzun yıllardır bizleri ölümle karşı karşıya bırakıyor”
Litani Nehri yatağına yakın yerleşim yerlerinden Dahr el-Hima Köyü İmam Hatibi Şeyh Cemil Asi, on yıllardan beri ülkenin en önemli su kaynaklarından biri olan Litani Nehri’ndeki kirliliğin önüne geçilememesini “utanç verici” bir durum olarak nitelendirdi.
Bölge sakinleri olarak, yetkililerin uzun yıllardır Litani Nehri’nin kirli akmasına seyirci kalmasına isyan ettiklerine vurgulayan Şeyh Asi, sözlerini şöyle sürdürdü:
“Bu durum kronik hastalıkların yanı sıra kanser, astım ve diğer birçok hastalığa yol açtığı gibi her yıl onlarca çocuk ve yaşlının da ölümüne neden oluyor. Yolsuzluklarla yönetimde kalanlar, uzun yıllardır bizleri beldemizden geçen nehrin getirdiği ölümle karşı karşıya bırakıyor.”
Şeyh Asi, Birleşmiş Milletlere seslenerek “bölge sakinlerinin bu durumdan kurtarılması için bir adım atmaları” çağrısında bulundu.
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