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Taliban’ın 2001’de alıkoyduğu İngiliz gazeteci Ridley Afganistan’daki gelişmeleri AA’ya değerlendirdi

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Taliban'ın 2001'de alıkoyduğu İngiliz gazeteci Ridley Afganistan'daki gelişmeleri AA'ya değerlendirdi

Afganistan’da 2001 yılında Taliban tarafından yakalanan ve 11 gün alıkonulan İngiliz gazeteci ve yazar Yvonne Ridley, Afganistan’daki son gelişmelere ilişkin görüşlerini AA muhabirine anlattı.

Ridley, tüm dünyanın Afganistan’da olup bitenler hakkında merak içerisinde olduğunu belirterek, “Batı medyasında gerçekten korkunç ve dramatik manşetler var. Bence bu, sahada neler olduğuna dair yanıltıcı bir izlenim veriyor.” diye konuştu.

Taliban’ın geçmişte Afganistan’ı yönetme hırsı olmadığını ve bölgeyi ilgilendiren uluslararası diplomasiyi anlamamak gibi büyük hatalar yaptığını ifade eden Ridley, Taliban’ın bugün daha az yıpratıcı ve daha kapsayıcı göründüğünü söyledi.

Ridley, tanınmış uluslararası gazetecilerin de aralarında bulunduğu birçok basın mensubunun Afganistan hakkında gerçek dışı propaganda yaptığını vurgulayarak, “Batı medyasında Afganistan’daki gerçeklikle hiçbir ilgisi olmayan çok sayıda görüntü, film ve çekim var. Ya anlıyorlar ve dünyanın geri kalanını yanıltmayı seçiyorlar ya da Batı’nın kibir ve cehaletiyle, dünyanın geri kalanının yanıltılmasına yol açıyorlar. Bu tür tehlikeli propagandalar, sadece son günlerde Kabil havaalanında ortaya çıktığını gördüğümüz korku dolu ve kaotik sahneleri körüklüyor.” ifadelerini kullandı.

İnsanların korkularını yok saymadığını dile getiren Ridley, “Yüzlerindeki bakış ve korku elle tutulur cinsten ve gerçek. Bunun farkındayım çünkü Taliban tarafından alıkonulduğumda tam olarak böyle hissetmiştim, onlardan çok korkmuştum. Bu korkunun farkındayım ama ben de bir propaganda kurbanıydım. Dönemin ABD Başkanı George W. Bush ve İngiltere Başbakanı Tony Blair bize, bunların acımasız, kötü insanlar olduğunu ve kadınlardan nefret ettiğini söylemişti. İlk geceyi sağ atlatacağımı bile düşünmüyordum.” açıklamasında bulundu.

“İşin içinde bir sürü bağnazlık, önyargı ve ırkçılık var”

Ridley, Taliban’ın kentte kontrolü ele almasının ardından Kabil havaalanında yaşananlara değinerek, şunları kaydetti:

“Bu görüntüler gerçekten zor. Batılı izleyiciler, önce hepsinin çıkmasını istiyor, sonra ise ‘bunlar koyu tenli insanlar, sakalları var, onları ülkemizde istiyor muyuz’ diye düşünüyorlar. İşin içinde bir sürü bağnazlık, önyargı ve ırkçılık var. Hem Taliban’ı eleştirmek isteyen hem de Afganların İngiltere’ye gelmesini arzu etmeyenler çok karışık duygulara sahip. Yani vaziyet korkunç. İngiltere, ABD ve diğer ülkeler işaretleri fark edip bu insanları dışarı çıkarmalı, haftalar önce onları çıkarmak için düzenlemeler yapmalılardı. Batı’nın ‘şaşırdık’ demesinin oldukça samimiyetsiz olduğunu düşünüyorum. Görüntüler kimseye bir iyilik yapmıyor, çok kötü bir tanıtım. Batı için, Taliban için de iyi bir görünüm değil, beyin göçü var, en iyi profesyonellerinden bazılarını kaybediyorlar. Öte yandan ayrılmak isteyen herkesin gitmesine izin verilmesi gerektiğini düşünüyorum. Ancak Pakistan’daki arkadaşlarım bana çok büyük bir Afgan mülteci akını beklediklerini ama bunun henüz gerçekleşmediğini söyledi. Yani Kabil’deki insanlar paniklese de kırsaldakiler daha çok ‘bekleyip görelim’ diye düşünüyorlar.”

Kadınların Taliban yönetimi altında eğitim görmediğine dair tartışmalara da değinen Ridley, “Taliban, kadınların eğitiminin üniversite seviyesine kadar devam edeceğine dair güvence verdi. Vaatlerini yerine getirmelerini umalım ama bazı gerçeklerden de bahsetmek lazım. 20 yıllık ABD ve NATO işgali nelere yol açtı? Sahadaki gerçeklere bakalım. Üniversiteler sözde herkese açık. Gerçek şu ki Afgan kadınlarının yüzde 2’si üniversiteye gidiyor. Bunlar da ayrıcalıklı, seçkin kadınlar. Kimin başta olduğu önemli değil, onlar her zaman başarılı olacaklar ve onlar adına mutluyum. Ama Afgan kadınlarının yüzde 84’ü hala okuma yazma bilmiyor. Bu bir başarı hikayesi değil.” dedi.

Bazı insanların değişimin zaman alacağını savunduğunu ifade eden Ridley, eski Zimbabwe Devlet Başkanı Robert Mugabe’nin 20 yılda Zimbabwe kadınlarını tüm Afrika’nın en eğitimlileri haline getirmesini örnek göstererek, “Mugabe bile başarabildiyse, Batı, Afgan kadınlarına verdiğini söylediği tüm güç ve desteğe rağmen bunu neden gerçekleştiremedi? Nedenini söyleyeyim. Çalışan sınıflara yardım etmekle ilgilenmedikleri için.” değerlendirmesini yaptı.

“Taliban sözüne sadık kalmazsa asla affedilmeyecek”

Ridley, Taliban’ın vaatlerini yerine getirmesi gerektiğinin altını çizerek, “Taliban sözüne sadık kalmazsa asla affedilmeyecek. Sözlerinizi duyduk. Şimdi onu uyguladığınızı görelim. Sadece büyük şehirlerin zengin, güçlü, nüfuzlu kadınlarını değil, tüm kadınları onurlandırdığınızı görelim. Bu vaadi, Afgan kadınlarına, şimdiye kadar seslerini duyuramayan milyonlarca Afgan kadınına sunun.” şeklinde konuştu.

Afganistan’da Müslümanlık adı altında kötü muameleye maruz kalan birçok kadın olduğunu dile getiren Ridley, “İslam’dan bahsediyorlar. Bir Müslüman olarak biliyorum ki İslam’da zorla evlilik diye bir şey yoktur. Afganistan’daki bu kültürel uygulamalardan kurtulmak lazım. İslami değerleri öne çıkaracaksanız zorla evlendirmelerden kurtulun. Aile içi şiddeti suç saymaya başlamak bir başlangıç olabilir.” ifadelerini kullandı.

Ridley, Taliban’ın hatalarını görmek için 20 yılı olduğunu, bu sebeple özellikle imzaladıkları Doha Anlaşması’nın da etkisiyle Afganistan’ın terörizmin merkezi olmasına izin vermeyeceklerine inandığını söyledi.

ABD’nin Afganistan’daki 20 yıllık varlığının, bu ülkenin bir ulus kurucu olmadığını bir kez daha kanıtlandığını ifade eden Ridley, sözlerini şöyle sürdürdü:

“Biliyorsunuz, askeri kampanyalarına 2 trilyon dolar harcadılar, Afganistan’da eğitime, sağlık hizmetlerine veya refaha 1 trilyon dolar harcadıklarını hayal edin. Ama bunun yerine orduya 2 trilyon dolar harcadılar, Taliban için bir ordu yarattılar ve Taliban’ın artık bir Hava Kuvvetleri var. 20 yılı Taliban’dan kurtulmak için harcadılar. Ve yaptıkları şey, geri getirip onlara bir ordu vermek.”

Ridley Taliban’ı övmek gibi bir amacı bulunmadığını, ideolojilerinin takipçisi olmadığını belirterek, “Ben yalnızca doğruları söyledim. İnsanların bundan hoşlanmadığını görüyorum, insanlar bundan rahatsız oluyor. Doğruyu söylediğim için özür dileyemem.” dedi.

Afganistan’ın bölgedeki ticaretin önemli bir parçası olma potansiyeli taşıdığının altını çizen Ridley, “Afgan kadınlarının enkazdan çıktığını, güçlü ve bağımsız olduğunu görmek istiyorum. Görmek istediğim şey bu. Afganistan’dan farklı bir anlatı veren başka görüntüler görmek istemiyorum. Bu ülkenin barışa kavuşmasının zamanı geldi, kendini yeniden inşa etmesinin zamanı geldi. Afgan halkına bir şans verin ve büyük oyunu unutun. Yeni bir Afganistan’ın enkazdan yükseldiğini görelim.” diye konuştu.

Yvonne Ridley, 2001’de Pakistan’dan Afganistan’a geçmeye çalışırken Taliban tarafından yakalanmıştı. İngiliz gazeteci, Taliban tarafından 11 gün alıkonulmasının ardından serbest bırakılmıştı.

Ridley, Taliban ile yaşadığı deneyimi anlatan bir kitap dahil bir dizi esere imza attı. Ridley, Suriyeli kadın mahkumlara yönelik insani yardım çalışmaları ve Arakanlı mültecilere karşı işlenen savaş suçlarının kanıtlarının toplamasına yardımcı olması sebebiyle 2019’da Nobel barış ödülüne aday gösterildi.

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