‘Türk fındığı’nın genleri Bolu’da koruma altında
Orman Genel Müdürlüğüne bağlı Batı Karadeniz Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü 2004 yılında başlattığı çalışmayla Anadolu’da bulunan Türk fındığı popülasyonunu belirledi.
Bolu, Ankara, Çorum ve Kastamonu başta olmak üzere 9 bölgedeki Tük fındığı türlerini araştıran Enstitü müdürlüğü yetkilileri, hazırladıkları proje kapsamında topladıkları fındık örneklerini Bolu’da oluşturulan araştırma bahçesindeki fidanlara aşılayarak çoğalttı.
Proje kapsamında 2008 yılında Karacasu beldesi yolu üzerindeki Bolu Belediyesi fidanlığında yetiştirilmeye başlanan Türk fındığı meyve vermeye başladı.
Hem Anadolu’da yetişen Türk fındığı türlerinin hepsinin aynı bahçede bulunması hem de genetik olarak ana ağaçlarla birebir aynı özellikleri taşıması açısından önem taşıyan fidanlık, Türk fındığının meyve ve yapraklarında bulunan yararlı maddelerin araştırılmasında da kullanılıyor.
Fidanlıkta yer alan Türk fındığı türleri üzerinde araştırma yapan bilim insanları ve Enstitü yetkilileri, meyve ile yapraklarda bulunan önemli asit ve maddelerin hangi dönemde daha çok olduğu, bu maddelerin ne zaman kullanılması gerektiği yönünde çalışmalar gerçekleştiriyor.
“Bilim dünyasına katkı da sunuyoruz”
Batı Karadeniz Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürü Mustafa Arslan, gazetecilere, çalışmanın hem Türk fındığının gen yapısının korunması hem de araştırılması açısından önemli olduğunu söyledi.
Batı Karadeniz bölgesindeki Türk fındığı popülasyonunun ex-situ yöntemiyle koruma altına alınması ve genetik çeşitliliğinin araştırılması çalışması kapsamında önemli çıktılar elde ettiklerini aktaran Arslan, çalışmanın, bu türün yayılış alanı dışında farklı bir yerde gen kaynağını korumak anlamını taşıdığını kaydetti.
Arslan, 2004 yılında ve öncesinde Türk fındığının doğal yayılış alanlarını tespit ettiklerini dile getirerek,” Oradan tohum örnekleri aldık. Sonrasında tekrar araziye giderek ana ağaçlardan aşı kalemleri aldık. Ürettiğimiz fidanların üzerine aşı kalemlerini aşıladık. 9 popülasyona ait alan gezilerek 45 klon, tıpa tıp aynı fertler üretmek için çalıştık. Türk fındığını farklı yöntemlerle de üretebilirdik. Biz burada aşı kalemini tercih ederek ana bireyleri temsil eden tıpa tıp olan bireylerle bahçeyi kurmuş olduk.” diye konuştu.
Arslan, oluşturdukları bahçenin türü koruma anlamında da hizmet verdiğini dile getirerek, “Projeye başlarken doğal yayılış alanlarını garantiye almak için bir çalışma yaptık. Doğal yayılış alanlarını tespit ettik ve bu alanlarda doğal ormanlarda bu türün kesiminin yasaklanmasını teklif ettiğimiz genel müdürlüğümüz bunu uygun buldu. Doğal yaşam alanındaki ağaçlar kaybolsa bile burada biz bu gen kaynağında bunları muhafaza ediyoruz. Herhangi bir ihtiyaç durumunda tohumdan ya da aşı kalemi alarak doğal yayılış alanında üretebileceğiz.” ifadelerini kullandı.
Oluşturdukları bahçede bulunan Türk fındığının tıp ve eczacılık alanında yapılan araştırmalarda da kullanıldığını anlatan Arslan, “Ülkemizdeki bilim insanları hatta uluslararası camiada da elimizdeki bu sonuçları ve değerleri paylaşıyoruz. Bilim dünyasına katkı da sunuyoruz. Türk fındığındaki farklı popülasyonların yapraklanma, çiçeklenme, meyve verme zamanını bir takvim sürecinde takip ediyoruz. Daha sonra bunları bilim camiasıyla paylaşacağız. Diğer taraftan yaprakları ve meyvesinde bulunan yararlı maddelerin değişimine aylık olarak bakıyoruz. Bunun sonucundan bu yararlı maddeleri hangi aylarda ve dönemlerde daha yüksek oranda verdiğini ve hangi popülasyonun daha yüksek verdiğini tespit ederek eczacılık sektörü için gerekli olan bazı hammaddeleri sağlayacağız.” değerlendirmesinde bulundu.
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